Egypt in Turmoil


From the time Mohamed Morsi was elected as president of Egypt there were continuous protests. This timeline documents these protests. On 22 November 2012, tens of thousands of protesters started to demonstrate against president Mohamed Morsi, after Morsi's government announced a temporary constitutional declaration that in effect granted the president unlimited powers. Morsi deemed the decree necessary to protect the elected constituent assembly from a planned dissolution by judges appointed during the Mubarak-era.

The demonstrations were organized by Egyptian opposition organizations and individuals, mainly liberals, leftists, secularists and Christians. The demonstrations have resulted in violent clashes between Morsi-supporters and the anti-Morsi protesters, with dozens of deaths and hundreds of injuries. Demonstrators gathered outside the presidential palace, which in turn was surrounded by tanks and armored vehicles of the Republican Guard. The anti-Morsi protesters in Cairo were estimated at 200,000, while over 100.000 supporters of Morsi gathered in Cairo to show support. A number of Morsi's advisers resigned in protest, and many judges spoke out against his actions as well. Resignations were tendered by the director of state broadcasting, Rafik Habib (Christian vice president of the Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party), and Zaghloul el-Balshi (general secretary of the commission overseeing the planned constitutional referendum). Seven members of Morsi's 17-member advisory panel resigned in December 2012.

On 8 December 2012, Morsi annulled his temporary decree which had expanded his presidential authority and removed judicial review of his decrees, an Islamist official said, but added that the results of the temporary declaration would still stand. George Isaac of the Constitution Party said that Morsi's declaration did not offer anything new, the National Salvation Front rejected it as an attempt to save face, and the April 6 Movement and Gamal Fahmi of the Egyptian Journalists Syndicate said the new declaration failed to address the "fundamental" problem of the nature of the assembly that the opposition boycotted.


On 22 December, the Constitution supported by Morsi was approved in a national referendum by 64% of the voters, with 32.9% of the electorate voting. The opposition claimed fraud in the process and called for an inquiry.

By 30 June, on the first anniversary of the election of Morsi, tens of thousands of Morsi opponents massed in Tahrir Square and outside the main presidential palace in the Heliopolis suburb demanding Morsi's resignation. Demonstrations were also reported to be in progress in 18 locations across Cairo and in other different locations across the country including Alexandria, El-Mahalla and cities of the Suez Canal. The demonstrations are described as being backed by multiple entities, including the Tamarod movement formed by members of the Egyptian Movement for Change in April 2013 that claims to have collected 22 million signatures calling for President Morsi's resignation.

On the night of 3 July, after a warning 48 hours earlier to intervene, the Egyptian Armed Forces came out with a statement announcing the end of Mohammed Morsi's presidency. In the same statement, the military announced that the constitution was suspended, that a presidential election would be held soon, the chief justice of the constitutional court, Adly Mansour, is now head of the government and that a transitionaltechnocratic government would be formed until the election.

In protest of the partially popular coup, supporters of the ousted President Morsi staged large demonstrations in the Nasr City district of Cairo, and in Alexandria, Luxor, Damanhour and Suez.

After the military coup of 30 June 2013, the Egyptian army cracked down on public media and shut down several news outlets that it deemed pro-morsi, including al-Jazeera.

In what many have deemed a massacre, hundreds of pro-Morsi demonstrators have since been killed in army crackdowns and attacks on pro-Morsi demonstrations. In many cases the army has denied shooting at demonstrators with live ammunition, contrary to eyewitnesses and first hand accounts of western news outlets and local residents.

Muslim Brotherhood: